A hernia is a condition that arises when an organ pulls through a tear in the tissue or muscle holding it in place. Hernias are common in the abdominal region between the hips and chest, although they can also develop in the groin and upper thigh. Although most hernias are not immediately fatal, they do not go away entirely on their own. As a result, surgery may be necessary to avoid potentially serious side effects.
Hernias come in several forms. Inguinal hernias are common in men and occur in the groin. Femoral hernias are located in the upper thigh, close to the groin. These are predominantly present in women and are substantially less common. Another common site for hernias is the abdomen. Hernias in the abdomen’s midline are known as ventral hernias.
Incisional hernias develop at the location of a prior surgical scar. Babies are more likely to develop umbilical hernias associated with the belly button. A hiatal hernia happens when a part of the stomach pushes through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. The esophagus may become damaged by acid leaking from the stomach due to this hernia.
A lump or bulge in the affected region is a hernia’s most common sign. Weakened tissues and muscle strain contribute to the hernia’s development. The condition may develop gradually or suddenly, depending on the cause.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) arises when the diaphragm, the frail muscle sheet dividing the chest from the abdomen, is ruptured. The colon, stomach, or liver may shift into the chest cavity due to this gap developing while the fetus is growing inside the womb. These abdominal organs’ presence in the chest restricts lung space and may cause respiratory issues.
Several components of the lungs’ function may not fully develop until after the infant is born because CDH compels the lungs to build in a compressed position. A newborn with CDH may experience pulmonary hypoplasia, a condition in which the lungs are underdeveloped. Chromosomal abnormalities or genetic disorders can occasionally be the cause of CDH.
The infant might have other health or organ problems in this scenario. In some cases, CDH could develop without a clear hereditary cause. This is known as isolated CDH, and the critical point, in this case, is the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia produced by the abnormality. Genetic testing is necessary to verify whether CDH is an isolated case and to give the most accurate information about the illness.